It is possible to prevent pregnancy by means of various precautions that can be taken before, during or after sexual intercourse. Contraception is a decision that should be taken together that affects the partners in the relationship and is suitable for those who are not considering pregnancy. Contraception methods that are correct and applied during sexual intercourse provide a high level of protection and prevent fertilization. Conservation methods are varied by hormonal controls, by following the cycle, by preventing the fertilization environment in the uterus or by preventing the sperm from reaching the uterus, and each individual can choose the method for himself. A specialist obstetrician and gynecologist can help for the most comfortable and effective contraception methods.
What are Prevention Methods and Why Are They Needed?
To understand how contraception is effective and why it is necessary, it may be helpful to simply know the mechanism by which pregnancy occurs during sexual intercourse.
Reproductive organs of men and women are suitable structures for pregnancy in cases where no precautions are taken and necessary conditions exist. During intercourse, that is, during sexual intercourse, both reproductive organs make pregnancy possible with the fluids they secrete. At the end of the intercourse, even in a single drop of the fluid secreted from the man during intercourse, there may be thousands of sperm. If pregnancy is not desired and planned, contraception methods are very important for couples and should be considered before undesirable results. Unwanted pregnancies at the end of unprotected relationships can also bring psychological problems for couples. In the future, it is essential to be protected so that abortion, that is, the termination of pregnancy, is not necessary and the couples do not wear out.
Conservation methods are varied for both women and men. The most frequently preferred methods by women are spiral, birth control pills, injection, subcutaneous capsule, diaphragm, female condom, spermicide, calendar method, breastfeeding, tubal ligation. The methods of contraception used in men are vasectomy, condom and withdrawal.
Protection Methods for Women
There are natural or unnatural women’s protection methods. Conservation methods are not a decision that only women or men should make alone. It is possible for every individual to be protected by the decision of the couples together. It is possible to protect yourself naturally or in different ways, thanks to condom-free methods of contraception.
Spiral (intrauterine device): It is a T-shaped, intrauterine device with a specialized structure to be removed from the vaginal canal with a thread at the end. This device is frequently preferred by women who decide that they have reached a sufficient number of births and do not think of pregnancy for a long time. Thanks to its copper and hormone-secreting types, it reduces sperm movements in the uterus or prevents the formation of the fertilization environment. It provides up to 5-10 years of use and 99% protection.
Birth control pills: Birth control pills, which should be used in different ways according to the types of pills, prevent fertilization by stimulating the secretion of estrogen and progesterone hormones. It provides 93% high protection.
Injection: It is a birth control method provided with hormones injected under the skin with 2-month or 3-month follow-ups. Provides 96% protection.
Subcutaneous capsule: Monthly hormonal control is provided with a small silicone capsule placed in the arm and under the skin. It inhibits fertilization and ovulation. Thanks to the capsules applied in a period without suspicion of pregnancy, protection is provided up to 3-5 years and at a rate of 99%.
Diaphragm: It is a small, rubbery dome-shaped instrument placed in the cervix before intercourse. It prevents the semen from reaching the uterus during intercourse. It can be washed and used. It can be removed 6 hours after intercourse. It is 87-90% protective.
Female condom: Condoms used by men and which should be renewed in every relationship provide a different use for women as well. A female condom is a latex condom that is placed in the cervix before intercourse. Since the sperm will fill here and not reach the uterus, it should be removed after intercourse. It provides up to 80% protection.
Spermicide: Sperm movements must be healthy in order for the sperm to move up to the tubes in the uterus. Thanks to spermicide drugs, sperm movements are prevented and fertilization does not occur. It provides 70-80% protection. For the most reliable methods of contraception, spermicide should not be used alone, but together with tools such as an intrauterine device, condom or diaphragm. In this way, the protection rate can be up to 95%.
Tubal ligation: It is the procedure to tie the tubes for women who state that they have reached a sufficient number of deliveries or that they do not want to give birth. With ovulation, the egg reaches the uterus and fertilization takes place here. After the tubes are tied, the probability of fertilization is close to 0%.
Breastfeeding: In the first few months after giving birth to the first menstrual period, a natural protection mechanism occurs in women due to breastfeeding. Although there is intercourse in the first 6 months, fertilization does not occur and it is a natural protection method with a high protection rate.
Calendar method: In women, fertilization and ovulation time can be determined by following the menstrual cycle. Birth control and planned pregnancies are possible when these dates are known and have intercourse according to the calendar.
The morning-after pill: The morning-after pill, which is an emergency contraceptive method, should be taken within 72 hours after unprotected sex. It prevents implantation by destroying the environment suitable for fertilization in the inner layer of the uterus. It is most effective in the first 12 hours.
Protection Methods for Men
Although male contraception methods are not as diverse as female contraception methods, there is a high rate of preference. Especially condom and withdrawal methods are among the most used methods among the people.
Condom: It is a rubber device that needs to be renewed during each intercourse and is inserted into the erect penis. Sperm ejaculate into the condom at the end of ejaculation and protection is provided. Condoms are also a promising tool for sexually transmitted diseases.
Vasectomy: It is the procedure of tubal ligation surgery in women, performed in men. It is a surgical procedure performed by cutting or ligating the vas deferens channel, which enables the sperm to be transmitted to the testicles in men. In this method, the pregnancy rate is close to 0. The consent of both married couples is ethically required for the procedure.
Withdrawal: It is a natural prevention method that does not provide high protection and is barrier-free for sexual diseases. It is done by pulling the penis outside just before the man ejaculates. However, even during intercourse, it provides 60% protection from pregnancy due to the secretion from the penis.
Protection Methods Reliability
There are different methods of contraception for women and men, and when couples do not want pregnancy, they can choose the most comfortable method for them by consulting their physicians. It is possible to prevent pregnancy up to 99-100% with contraceptive methods. You can also research for the best prevention methods for yourself and your partner and find the reliable one with the advice of a physician.